Nursing & Healthcare Directories on: The Nursefriendly
Infectious Diseases, Chlamydia Trachomatis,
Trachoma, Granular Conjuctivitis, Egyptian Ophthalmia

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Trachoma in Australia, Medical Journal of Australia:"Trachoma is a disease that has been with us from antiquity. It is discussed in ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus and in even earlier writings from ancient China. Chronic infection with the trachoma organism, Chlamydia trachomatis, can lead to blindness. The disease came to prominence in Europe during the Napoleonic wars, when tens of thousands of British and French troops returned with trachoma after fighting in Egypt. It spread rapidly through the armies of Europe, where the troops lived in crowded and insanitary barracks. Most of all, trachoma was a disease of the urban slums. In Europe, as people left their relatively healthy rural homes they were crowded into the workhouses and tenements created by the Industrial Revolution. Personal and community hygiene fell to an all-time low and the prevalence of trachoma surged."
AMPCo,
Locked Bag 3030, Strawberry Hills NSW 2012, Australia
http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/175_07_011001/taylor/taylor.html

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Trachoma, Clinical Features, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:"Trachoma is a chronic follicular conjunctivitis that leads to scarring in the conjunctiva and cornea. Repeat active infections occur in children under 10 years of age. Subsequently, conjunctival scarring (cicatricial disease) and inversion of the eyelashes so they irritate the cornea (trichiasis) develops as a result of earlier infections. Trichiasis predisposes to corneal ulceration and corneal opacities resulting in decreased vision and blindness."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A
Tel: (404) 639-3311 / Public Inquiries: (404) 639-3534 / (800) 311-3435
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/trachoma_t.htm

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Trachoma, Pathophysiology, emedicine.com: Trachoma typically is caused by serovars A, B, Ba, and C of C trachomatis, although different serovars predominate within different families and communities. Chlamydiae are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that also cause genital infections (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (serovars L1-L3). Serovars D-K may cause chronic follicular conjunctivitis that is indistinguishable from trachoma, including follicular conjunctivitis with pannus and, at times, conjunctival scarring. Infection causes inflammation, ie, predominantly lymphocytic and monocytic infiltrate with plasma cells and macrophages in follicles. The follicles are typical germinal centers with islands of intense B-cell proliferation, which is surrounded by a sea of T cells. Recurrent reinfection causes the prolonged inflammation that leads to conjunctival scarring."
Emedicine.com Main Office
1004 Farnam Street, Suite 300 Omaha, Nebraska 68102
Office: 402-341-3222 Fax: 402-341-3336C edit@eMedicine.com
http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic118.htm

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Trachoma, Treatment, HealthAtoZ.com:"Treatment of early-stage trachoma consists of four to six weeks of antibiotic treatment with tetracycline, erythromycin, or sulfonamides. Antibiotics should be given without waiting for laboratory test results. Treatment may combine oral medication with antibiotic ointment applied directly to the eyes. A single-dose treatment with azithromycin is an alternative method. Tetracyclines should not be given to pregnant women or children below the age of seven years. Patients with complications from untreated or repeated infections are treated surgically. Surgery can be used for corneal transplantation or to correct eyelid deformities."
healthAtoZ.com
Princeton Park Corporate Center
1100 Cornwall Road, Suite 10 Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852
Phone: 732-422-4110 Fax #: 732-422-4112
Info@healthatoz.com
http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/trachoma.jsp

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General Trachoma Information, Helen Keller, International:"Trachoma usually begins in childhood, but does not cause blindness until much later in life as repeated infections cause scarring on the inside of the eyelid. Women are three times more likely to go blind from trachoma than men, probably due to their frequent contact with children. There are five signs of trachoma, and a person with trachoma can have more than one sign at the same time. The World Health Organization (WHO) has develop a simplified grading system for recognizing and naming these signs: Click here to see the Trachoma Grading Card."
http://www.trachomahki.org/Tracbackground.html

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Trachoma, Merck Manual, Second Home Edition:"Trachoma is the leading preventable cause of blindness in the world; it results from chronic or repeated infections with certain nonsexually transmitted strains of C. trachomatis. Trachoma is common in poverty-stricken parts of dry, hot countries in North Africa, the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. In the United States, trachoma is rare, occurring occasionally among Native Americans and among immigrants from areas where trachoma is common. The disease occurs mainly in children, particularly those between the ages of 3 and 6."
Merck & Co., Inc.
One Merck Drive P.O. Box 100 Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889-0100 USA
Phone: 908-423-1000 Monday-Friday 8:30 AM - 5:30 PM ET
http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec20/ch229/ch229c.html

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Trachoma, Sight Savers International:"Trachoma is caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis which is, as the name indicates, very similar to the one that causes the sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia. In this case, however, the infection causes repeated conjunctivitis: leading to irritated eyes and a mucous-type discharge. Although this conjunctivitis will clear up after a short period of time (commonly a month or so), it is very easily spread, and people - especially children - become reinfected from their friends and relatives."
Sight Savers International
Bolnore Road, Haywards Heath, West Sussex, RH16 4BX, UK
07000 14 2020
http://www.sightsavers.org.uk/html/eyeconditions/trachoma.htm

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Unite For Sight Online Eye Health Course:"Trachoma is a communicable disease that may lead to considerable visual disability, infecting 150 million people and blinding 6 million in developing countries. It is caused by the parasitic bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which grows only within the cells of the eyelid. Over a period of years, the scars may eventually cause eyelashes to point inwards, scratching the lens of the eye and in many cases causing blindness."
Unite For Sight
Attn: Jennifer Staple 31 Brookwood Dr. Newtown, CT 06470
JStaple@uniteforsight.org
http://www.uniteforsight.org/course/trachoma.php

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Trachoma, Interventions, Water-related Diseases, World Health Organization:"Primary interventions advocated for preventing trachoma infection include improved sanitation, reduction of fly breeding sites and increased facial cleanliness (with clean water) among children at risk of disease. The scaring and visual change for trachoma can be reversed by a simple surgical procedure performed at village level which reverses the inturned eyelashes."
World Health Organization
Avenue Appia 20
1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland
Telephone: (+ 41 22) 791 21 11
Facsimile (fax): (+ 41 22) 791 3111
Telex: 415 416
Telegraph: UNISANTE GENEVA
info@who.int
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/trachoma/en/

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on March 13, 2023


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